While photemission traditionally have been limited to ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions, the possibility to perform experiments under ambient pressure conditions opens up for completely new directions of science. Research topics that become possible include studies of liquids, gaseous samples and aerosols, as well as studies of catalysis under near-working conditions.
Furthermore, the combination of ambient pressure and HAXPES enables studies of buried interface and bulk properties of complex samples including fuel cells. The long electron inelastic mean free path characteristic of the HAXPES regime enables detailed studies of liquid/solid and liquid/ liquid interfaces, including chemical information. This capability makes HiPP-HAXPES a unique tool for investigations of these systems. The R4000 HiPP-2 instrument introduces photoemission as an attractive tool for a wide range of research areas, including wet chemistry, atmospheric physics/chemistry and biology.